Any metal detector works basically by creating a kind of electromagnetic field if you want to know How Metal Detectors Work! And this field is created from the search coil of the detector. When this electromagnetic field comes out of the search coil, the field is analyzed to see if there is any metal in the front part.

And if there is any kind of metal in front, then the machine then sends a signal to its user based on the information through that analysis. There is a type of metal detector that cannot discriminate against various unnecessary metals.

Again, some best metal detectors easily separate the unnecessary metal and display it if the item you specified comes in front of the search coil.

There is no way for others to understand How Metal Detectors Work and the unique joy of finding a treasure by rushing through a metal detector. Every step of the way in Metal Hunting will give you a different thrill.

Once you become part of this metal detecting world, you have no choice but to respond to this thrilling call. And that’s exactly why this thrilling world is slowly becoming a very popular hobby.

In their spare time, people are coming down with metal detectors in various fields, water, beaches, riverbanks, and many other places. If you find a treasure from the bottom of the earth for the first time in your life, you will realize how wonderful this thrilling feeling is!

And it’s not just a hobby. Because the number of people who have made a lot of money by metal hunting is not less. And so even if the metal detector price is a little higher since it is raising your money, people are never reluctant to spend anything.

But yes! One thing to keep in mind, Metal Detector is not a fun or one-of-a-kind game. The price of a good and quality metal detector with many types of features is much higher. However, if you want a detector for your kid, then there are lots of best kids detectors available to choose from!

This metal detector is even used to detect mine bombs in war. You will also see at various gates that many people are being checked with metal detectors to find out if they have any kind of dangerous metal.

And so metal detectors are not only a hobby but also a very important thing. Again, many have taken metal detection as their profession.

Today we will talk about exactly How Metal Detectors Work

The (Quick) Basics of Electromagnetism and metal detector working principle. However, you will not know how to make a metal detector from here. We will discuss just how it works.

The search coil

The search coil

Although the mechanism by which metal detectors work is quite complex, today we will try to explain it to you in a very simple language. Since the whole thing is a bit complicated, hopefully with patience you will have a clear idea of ​​the many details of a metal detector.

And we hope that your knowledge of metal detectors will increase a lot after reading this article. Which will help you become a good quality professional metal hunter?

Because if you don’t know much about the machine that is so controlled, then how can you become a professional on that metal detector machine!

In the electromagnetic field, the name may sound a little unfamiliar. But simply put, it is actually a combination of electric and magnetism.

We do not have to reiterate the impact of electricity on our daily lives. Although we have some general ideas about electricity in modern times, many people have less idea about magnetism.

And many do not understand why we rely on this magnetism.

Simply put, when we generate electricity, one of our generators spins a copper drum into a magnetic field.

And this is exactly why electricity starts flowing in the wire. And this method works in exactly the opposite way, just as we see when electricity can keep a motor in the rotating state.

The relationship between electricity and magnetism is very simple, just as electricity can produce magnetism, so too can magnetism produce electricity.

There’s an added notion that’s significant to comprehend. An altering magnetic field reasons a mutable electric field.

Similar grips accurate for electricity: An altering electric field produces an altering magnetic metal detector field. This is the small form of one of Maxwell’s well-known calculations. Utmost prominently for this editorial, it similarly clarifies why metal detectors work.

How a VLF Detector Usages Electromagnetism

We have already realized that we can create electric fields through magnetic fields. On the other hand, it is possible to create a magnetic field with an electric field.

Now it is necessary to know how a metal detector can detect metal using this process. In particular, we are now going to talk about metal detectors using the VLF method. VLF detectors mean detectors that do metal hunting with very low frequencies.

A detector in the ground—how metal detectors work

This type of detector has two types of coils. One is the transmitter coil and the other is the receiving coil.

This is how A detector in the ground—how metal detectors work.

And by the exact name, you understand that a magnetic field is transmitted from a coil. This magnetic field is created using the electricity of the battery in the metal detector that is used.

And the best thing about this magnetic field is that it is not damaged by any dirt or soil but is maintained.

If any metal moves within the scope of this magnetic field transmitted from the coil, there is a kind of change in this magnetic field.

After the effect of the magnetic field on the atom of the metal, the electrons start moving. And this is exactly what causes the change in the magnetic field transmitted from our coils. And this change is constantly happening around the metal.

To put it another way, when this magnetic field is created around the metal, it changes a lot because of the metal.

And just then the work of the receiver coil begins. The receiver coil begins to analyze what kind of change has taken place in that magnetic field.

This is because the changes made in the magnetic field also vary greatly depending on the size and type of metal. This different type of modification allows the receiver coil to determine exactly what type of metal your coil is exposed to.

And accordingly, the receiver coil provides the information through the sound box or in the digital display.

However, some of the details remain, which is very important in the case of metal detection. And that is that the receiver quality must be protected from all kinds of magnetic fields.

Otherwise, a magnetic field will be created in the receiver coil and the correct signal will not be obtained from it. The metal detector will then confuse the metal in the front of the coil and the receiver in the back of the coil, creating a different kind of magnetic field.

Also since the magnetic field transmitted from the coil is reflected in the metal it gives a signal to the beep sound through the receiver coil.

That is why the closer the coil reaches to the metal, the louder the sound.

How a VLF Detects Different Types of Metal

We may have already noticed that VLF detectors can usually detect metal so well that this detector can tell exactly what type of metal is in front of the coil.

Have you ever wondered exactly how a metal detector tells you what kind of metal is in front? Let’s try to satisfy your curiosity …

Metal detectors using the VLF method can nicely tell what kind of metal is in front. That ability is basically done through a kind of principle called phase shifting.

We will not go into too much technical and mechanical language. Simply put, the ability of this type of metal to withstand electrical resistance is quite different.

A few of these receivers can tell exactly what kind of metal is in front of the search coil by determining the resistance level of this electric magnetic field.

The different types of electrical resistance of each metal are called phase shifting. And with this method, a detector can tell exactly what kind of metal is under the ground.

And the ability of the detector to separate these metals is basically called discrimination. And many of us know that metal detectors using the VLF method have a lot of discriminating power. And we now know exactly how that discrimination power works.

The advantage that is different from the metal detector working in the VLF system is that this detector will not detect the metal you need.

You can determine exactly what type of metal you want to find through the special feature of this type of metal detector.

Suppose you only want to find gold. But there is plenty of iron in that soil. Then you can instruct the VLF Metal Detector if you want that this detector does not detect iron but only detects gold.

If you are interested in gold detectors to have a blast on the gold quest, then you can check out our list of best gold detectors.

And the fun of discrimination is here, it is possible to save a lot of your time by saving you from unnecessary digging.

Other Components

Apart from the process of talking about two types of search coils for so long, each metal detector has different necessary parts. Because when we look at a metal detector, at the same time it is very easy to guess that if two search coils, batteries, and wires could work, these machines would not be so expensive.

Let’s know a little bit about the other parts of this machine

Control unit

Control unit controls all the systems of the detector.

All the essentials of a metal detector are stored right here in the metal detector circuit. A control unit contains a few more essentials including batteries, speakers, processors, digital processors.


Shaft or stand is a part of a metal detector. It helps to hunting metals.

When you use a metal detector, each metal detector has a long shaft to make the experience much more comfortable.

This makes the whole machine straight and metal hunting can be done easily by placing the search coil in the designated place. Most of the shafts are adjustable which means you can use them as big or small as your convenience.

Search head

Search heads usually contain search coils. This part of the metal detector is usually round. This part is also called by different names. As someone says, antenna, hood again someone says search coil.


Stabilizer is also a part of a metal detector.

When you do metal hunting with a metal detector, it needs to be beautifully steady in one place after another. And this stabilizer keeps the whole thing steady.

A machine has a stabilizer at the top machine. Many types of models do not have this stabilizer, but it is not a problem. Rather the stabilizer can make your searching experience a little easier and smoother.

Apart from these mechanisms, utmost metal detectors have an earphone jack and a digital display panel.


The battery delivers electricity to the detector.

Who Invented the Metal Detector?

The story of the beginnings of metal detectors is very different and over a long period of time, it has evolved into today’s metal detectors. However, there is a lot of disagreement about exactly where the metal detector started.

According to many, the process of metal detector begins with the discovery of the equation that is the process of metal detector.

But before the end of the nineteenth century, people still did not see any kind of metal detector with their own eyes. Based on the equations of that electromagnetic radiation discovered by James Maxwell, later other scientists were able to make metal detectors.

And the idea of ​​making a metal detector based on that same discovery came to the minds of scientists.

Later though a man named Gustave Trouve made a model of the metal detector with the first handle. And in the same way, a scientist named Graham Bell built a bullet detecting machine.

However, it was not until 1920 that there was much activity in the manufacture of these metal detectors. Later, in the 1920s, there was a lot of speed in making metal detectors.

And in 2915, the first metal detector was patented by a scientist named Gerhard Fischer. Although many scientists later gradually developed this metal detector for many years.

Lieutenant Joseph, for example, was able to create a metal detector after much thought. However, the machine he made was also much heavier than the machines currently made, but it can be called an excellent effort.

But nowadays there are so many beautiful designs of metal detectors that it is surprising to compare them with the detectors of that day. In this case, it can be said that the trend of thousands of increasing advances in technology continues in metal detectors as well.

Are There Different Types?

There are several types of metal detectors available in the market today. And one of the best types of metal detectors is the metal detector using a pulse induction method.

There is actually no comparison to a metal detector using this technology to meet your hobby meter needs. Outstanding performance and service you may not find among other metal detectors.

The interesting thing is that metal detectors using pulse induction technology like metal detectors using the VLF method do not have two separate coils.

Instead, a search coil in the pulse induction metal detector acts as a transmitter and receiver.

The pulse induction method can be understood in the name of this machine. In one pulse this mission transmits electromagnetic field and in the second pulse, it transmits all the information of the transmitted magnetic field.

And through this second pulse, this machine basically detects the metal in front of the search coil.

When there is any metal in front of the search coil, that detector collects information from the magnetic field.

The first pulse transmits a magnetic field and the second pulse collects the information of the metal in front of it and gives a signal.

Whereas pulse induction expertise delivers better deepness and decent sensitivity for gold, there are little disadvantages too!

In urban areas, it is not possible to do much with a pulse induction metal detector. This is because such pulse induction metal detectors do not have the ability to discriminate.

As you are already aware of the ability to discriminate, the ability to detect different types of metals separately does not exist in machines using pulse induction technology.

So with this type of pulse induction detector, metal hunting can be done very nicely in rural areas. There is no comparison of this type of detector, especially in the case of gold prospecting.

Because in those places there is no metal other than water and pebbles. So gold detection can be done very easily with pulse induction.

Metal hunting can also be done on the beach with this type of best beach detectors. Also in all other places where you think there is no other trash or junk type metal, there can be nice and much deeper metal detection.

Apart from that, there are beat-frequency oscillator (BFO) hunters available in the marketplace. These types of metal detectors are quite inexpensive and least difficult. They aren’t as precise as VLF or PI detectors and don’t deliver a similar quantity of regulators.

Apart from these detectors, there is a diversity of others for dissimilar trades. Many industrialized detectors, for instance, have a three coil strategy. This formation permits the gadgets to notice even a mini piece of metal.

How far down can a metal detector detect metal?

Exactly how deep a metal detector can detect depends on a number of factors. Metal detectors usually detect any type of metal up to 20-30 cm.

However, the other issues to be considered here are:

The shape of the object. The larger the metal, the more the magnetic field changes. And in exactly the same way much deeper metal; became possible to detect.

It is also possible to detect much better changes in the magnetic field from metals.

On the other hand, what kind of metal detector you are going to detect is also a matter of consideration. This is because metal detectors using the VLF method provide much better discrimination, but metal detectors using pulse induction technology make it possible to detect metal much deeper.

Also what type of soil you are going to do metal detection is also a matter of discussion on How Metal Detectors Work. This is because soil that has a lot of mineralization is not possible with very deep detected VLF machines.

What Can Detectors Be Used For?

Metal detectors may be required for different purposes and metal detectors may also be of different types as required. The following are some of the notable purposes in which metal detectors are commonly used:

Security scanning

Security scanning doors are one kind of metal detectors.

Almost every time we go to any event or on the way to the office we see that we are being checked for security needs. In addition, different fairs have a type of gate through which whenever you enter with metal, you will immediately give a signal from the gate through different sounds.

Also, you can see metal detectors in the airport, and you might wonder about how do airport metal detectors work? It’s the same way any other metal detector detects metal.

Security scanning doors are one kind of metal detectors.

Again where you see a small handle like a machine turning around your body to see if there is any metal hidden in your body.

Even the current metal detectors can tell not only the metal but also the size of the metal.

Industrial detectors

Metal detectors are a very important part of many other industries, including food, mining, and pharmaceuticals. For example, the food industry.

Since food is also prepared with all metals in the industry, a metal detector is a very important factor in determining whether any metal part has been mixed in the food.


Metal detectors have been used in archeology for the past fifty years. Metal detectors work very well in archeology.

If there is an old antique thing somewhere, it is very important to detect it and get an idea of ​​the shape-shape relationship. Only then can the antique thing be brought out of the ground intact.

Hobbies and Professional Metal Hunting

Many people do metal hunting as a hobby. However, even though it is a hobby, it is almost always possible to earn a lot of money through metal hunting. And so many people have gradually taken metal detectors as a profession.

Metal hunting is slowly becoming very popular in today’s world. And so at the same time, a lot of new feature-rich metal detectors are also being made to keep pace.

HumsAmusing, But Aren’t They Costly and Hard to Usage?

Due to the design and all the interesting features of the metal detector, it is very nice to look at and becomes quite exciting for those who are new to this work.

Also, these metal detectors are quite expensive sometimes, but that doesn’t mean you always have to buy an expensive metal detector.

There are beginner detectors available in the market today which you can get at quite affordable prices.

With this type of Beginner Detector, you can hunt various coins, relics, etc. with great ease. If you are a beginner and have a lot of interest in metal hunting then you can check out our list of best beginner metal detectors.

I hope you like it and by choosing a metal detector from there you can set foot in the world of adventure.



Let’s talk about How Metal Detectors Work with the frequency level. Metal detectors usually detect metal by frequency. And the level of this frequency becomes a very important factor to find any target very well.

Usually, a metal detector that transmits only one frequency and it is quite high frequency then it will be very difficult to find a very small type of target with it.

On the other hand, the metal detectors that can be used to transmit several types of frequencies make it possible to detect even small objects very well.

Ground Balance

The metal detector has a feature to adapt to any type of ground, and that is the ground balance. There are two types of ground balances to suit any type of ground.

However, the ground balance feature has been added to the metal detector to adapt to mineralization in general. Because if there is a lot of mineralization in the soil, it means that the metal detector can give the wrong signal.

Ground balances are usually of three types; let’s have a little idea about them

Manual Ground Balance- If you want to do ground balance through this method, you have to be quite professional. If you can balance the ground as you need, then the chances of getting the wrong signal from the ground are very low.

Auto Ground Balance – This method does not require ground balance at all. The machine automatically adjusts to the ground to create a ground balance. If you are not very expert then with this method you can get a very good service.

Tracking Ground Balance – To detect when a machine is constantly changing the ground balance. Such a method is called tracking ground balance.


As we have said before about discrimination, the machine can separate different types of metal through it. This discrimination power is usually much higher than that of metal detectors using the VLF method.

Even with this type of metal detector, you can do metal hunting by targeting a specific metal. In that case, the signal will be given from the machine only when that particular metal comes in front of the search coil.

This feature is quite important if you want some to dive deep in, then our list of best underwater metal detectors will come in very handy to choose from!

There are four main types of discrimination in Minelab detectors:

1. Variable discrimination – The humblest type of discrimination that usages a regulator handle to regulate the level of discernment.

2. Iron Mask/Iron Reject – Cast off frequently with gold prospecting detectors to overlook iron rubbish.

3. Notch discrimination – Permits precise objective forms to be acknowledged or disallowed.

4. Smart find – The utmost progressive method of discrimination. Target IDs are planned to rely on both ferrous and conductive possessions on a two-dimensional (2D) demonstration. Separate sections or superior zones of the display can be shaded to cast off unwelcome objectives.

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